ROSE MARY GEORGE (1637242)-Individualising History: The ‘Real’ Self in The Shadow Lines

Author’s Name: Ajanta Sircar. Journal Name: Social Scientist, Vol No: 19, Issue No: 12, Year: 1991, Page No: 33-46, Date: 21/7/2016.

Ajanta Sircar, in his article “Individualising History: The ‘Real’ Self in The Shadow Lines” says about Ghosh’s representation of ‘India’ in that novel. For one of the character Ila, ‘nationality’ and ‘ethnicity’ are problematic terms. Having brought up in London, Ila inhabits a very different social role that was extremely different from those of Thamma’s. She tries to imitate the culture of Western Europe. The narrator gives us an idea about Tridib’s concept of ‘freedom’. The ‘freedom’ for him is the negation of the social past. The author of this article says that the contemporary Indian nation according to the narrator is a ‘special quality of loneliness’.

ROSE MARY GEORGE (1637242)- Beyond the Divide: History and National Boundaries in the Work of Amitav Ghosh.

Author’s name: Wassef, Hind. Journal Name:Journal of Comparative Poetics. No: 18. Year: 1998. Page:75-95.

In the article “Beyond the Divide: History and National Boundaries in the Work of  Amitav Ghosh”, Hind Wassef analyses the ways in which the work of Amitav Ghosh depicts the issues of national borders and how he connects that with the history. Also he says that in all his works, there is a conscious intention on the part of author to construct history. Also Hind quotes the argument made by Benedict Anderson on nation as “it is an imagined political community and it is imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign.”. This imagination is made by people and political ideologies.

The Legacy of 19th Century Popular Freak Show Discourse in the 21st Century X-Men Films

The writer, Fiona Pettit, in her paper establishes the narrative similarities in the 19th century freak shows and the 21st century X-Men movies. Pettit narrates the similarities between the way mutants and freak show performers speak about their condition. She also relates the similarities between the way ‘normal’ people speak about their condition by citing various examples from the movies.

Pettit narrates an incident in history when the freak show performers had protested against being called’freaks of nature’ and rallied to be referred to as ‘prodigy’ instead because of their extraordinary attitudes.”The normalizing of freak show performers through their everyday actions, alongside an emphasis on their extraordinary attributes, was an important convention in freak show discourse that has been brought forward to popular narratives of disability and otherness in the twenty-first century.” ( Pettit 2). Pettit looks at how this narrative is reflected in the unlikely format of superhero movies.

Pettit expalins how the X-Men movies have come to be analysed under the realm of disability studies as both freak shows and the movies are very popular mediums that bring the ‘other’ body on display.”These two forms of popular entertainment showcase extraordinary beings that represent a minority population separate from the general populace. As such, they are seen as the exception, the opposite to “normal”(Pettit 2).

A key debate within disability studies is the notion of the social acceptance which comes from what society accepts as normal.Freak show performers and mutants are both not accepted in the society due to their ‘otherness’ , which often leads to “devaluation and socially imposed restriction” (Pettit 3). Paul Longmore on TV and movie representation of the ‘others’ notes that oftentimes, “Disability is a punishment for evil; disabled people are embittered by their ‘fate’; disabled people resent the non-disabled and would, if they could, destroy them” (qtd. in Pettit 6).Throughout the movie, the character of Magneto keeps true to this analysis. He encourages his fellow mutants to accept themselves as they are but he also propagates a hatred for humans. Pettit mentions that this hatred for humans arose because of his traumatic experiences as a child in a concentration camp.

Bibliography

Pettit Fiona. The Legacy of 19th Century Popular Freak Show Discourse in the 21st Century X-Men Films, Review of Disability Studies: An International Journal, Vol. 10.Web.

Sonia Mary Alex (57)

Mannarathara, John. The Life and Legacy of Saint Kuriakose Elias Chavara . New Delhi: Viva Books. 2015.

   Filling the Literary void by K.V Thomas -p 172

             K.V Thomas looks at Chavara as the man who introduced the concept of ‘schools, more than churches’, and scripture and liturgy in the mother tongue. He also recognizes Chavara’s contribution to the Malayalam language.  We need to be cautious when a literary work in Malayalam composed a century and a half ago is chosen for analysis, and more so, if it is authored by a Christian priest.

             There were no other major works except for manipravalam, Ezhuthachan’s kilippattu, Kunchan Nambiar’s thullal kathakal and Poonthanam’s keerthanams, in Malayalam and even if these existed, they were not known. All these works were addressed only Hindus. Ezhuthachan’s Adhyatma Ramayana Kilippattu, for instance, a prominent example of Bhakti literature was highly popular throughout Kerala as it was intended or daily recital in Hindu homes. It was only towards the nineteenth century that the works composed before Ezhuthachan’s time, for example, Krishnagatha were discovered and published. There was a belief that Ezhuthachan shaped the Malayalam language and it continues even today.

             Popular entertainment such as Drama and poetry were forbidden to the Christian community of kerala after the Synod of Diamper, which was closely associated with occupations such as agriculture and business. Not only were they denied the right to read  the Bible, they were also qualified to do so. Mass prayers were in Syriac; hence devotional songs and prayers were not familiar to the people. It was sung mechanically as the faithful hardly knew the meaning or small radius of outdated liturgical books. Chavara’s greatness in this context is incomparable because he discarded such a system. There were no earlier formats in verse which Chavara could fall back on. Moreover, Malayalam did not have the required vocabulary to handle Christian subjects.

 

Sonia Mary Alex (No. 57)

Mannarathara, John. The Life and Legacy of Saint Kuriakose Elias Chavara . New Delhi: Viva Books.2015.

 

Topic: Revisiting Anastasia’s Martyrdom by M. Gopinath (pp 118-120)

The article is a thematic appreciation of Martyrdom of Anastasia who encountered the persecution courageously. This event has both historical and contemporary significance. Chavara composed the first short epic poem (khandakavyam) Martyrdom of Anastasia in 1861.  His intention was to prepare the Christians to hold on their true faith in the Catholic Church.  The kerala Church was in a in a great storm of Roccos Schism. He was inspired and  had the courage to halt the evil. Chavara wrote letter to the Holy See and discerned that Bishop Roccos was not sent by the Pope. The path-breaking literacy piece was a reinforcement of Chavara’s circular urging the faithful to be ready even for martyrdom for the cause of preserving the unity of the Indigenous Church. The circular preceded the arrival of the unauthorized bishop Mar Thomas Roccos in Kochi in 1861.

             Comprising 182 verses and set to the tune of a boat song (vanchipattu), the tenor of the poem was such as to move the listeners. The visionary priest took timely measures in such a manner that he succeeded in blunting the schism and caused the exit of repentant Roccos to Baghdad in1862. The poem greatly enjoyable even by today’s standards, is a crowning example as to how exponents of the Venmani Movement.

The poem is about Abbess Sophia, young nun Anastasia. Licinius Valerianus (AD 195-260), the Roman ruler, who comes to know about the saintly nun, orders  his minister Probus, to call upon to his court. In a fit of rage, the emperor commands his minister to take her to the graveyard, where she is persecuted.

The poem was written with the aim of equipping Christians to face the dark dawn of schism that was forthcoming large. Through Anastasia, Chavara brings out the message that retaining the sanctity of faith and unity needs the spirit of a bird that senses the light and sings when the dawn is still dark. Anastasia’s intimacy with God was powerful enough to survive the threat of the emperor, who believed in Jupiter and insisted that his subjects renounce Christianity.

Anasthasya wanted to be a martyr. She stood firm for her faith in Jesus. No treasures can make her happy. She was powerful and courageous to oppose the emperor and minister.  Similarly, though without any direct parallels, Chavara weaves into the poem, the cause of Catholic unity to martyr-rich proportions. Cyrilose, a laity who gave Anasthasya a drop of water as she was sinking. He summoned the same fate on himself. Mother Sophia showed a loving concern and prepared the young nun to receive the eternal reward. Both are depicted as strong characters. She represents the womenfolk of Kerala. This character has got a universal relevance. Only a selfless mother can send her daughter for undergoing dreadful torture. She transforms her conviction in Jesus into live conduct. Cyrilos is a model for the Good Samaritan.

Elizabeth (22) English Language Teaching in Its Social Context

Christopher N. Candlin and Neil Mercer (Eds.). English Language Teaching in Its Social Context. London: Routledge, (200)1.617-618.

In this article the word ‘social context ’ gives the implication that it goes beyond the classroom, particularly teachers practices. Articles focus is on key concepts in learning and their classroom implications. “The range and relevance also reflect the roles of many of the contributors who not only teach in master’s courses but also write the prescribed texts for them.” (617)

 “How Is Language Learning Explored?”etc deals with general principles of second language acquisition too.  The language teachers have the great responsibility to update their knowledge according to the developments in the modern world.

It also deal with ‘Strategies and Goals in the Classroom Context’ too.

Elizabeth- A Study on the Usefulness of Audio-Visual Aids in EFL Classroom: Implications for Effective Instruction

Nalliveettil George Mathew & Ali Odeh Hammoud Alidmat, A Study on the Usefulness of Audio-Visual Aids in EFL Classroom: Implications for Effective Instruction- International Journal of Higher Education Vol. 2, No. 2; 2013

This particular journal displays the approach of EFL students towards technological aids based on the study conducted at the undergraduate level at Aljouf University,Saudi Arabia.

The language text books with technological aids will be an inspirational and motivating source. According to George Mathew & Ali Odeh, EFL textbooks with technological aids are often viewed to be an inspiration and to provide motivation in classroom instruction (86).

Ranasinghe and Leisher (2009) say that technology should assist the teacher in creating a collaborative learning environment. According to Capper, many teachers do not using the technological devices either because they do not know have technical knowledge or they do not find time to gather suitable resources. ”An effective integration of teaching aids and methodology elevates the learning environment. Activities related to listening and speaking skills require audio-visual aids. It is the responsibility of the teacher to use audio-visual aids to make the teaching-learning process effective.” (George Mathew & Ali Odeh 86).

Ranasinghe and Leisher (2009) points out that technology can never replace the human mind, but it can help expand it. (George Mathew & Ali Odeh 87). Since audio-visual resources are designed and introduced to improve the language proficiency of the students, an understanding of how these resources are effective in classroom learning environment would be beneficial while designing and integrating audio-visual resources with EFL textbooks and also to design the teaching methodology (87).

” The modernization of classroom teaching aids gave scope for teachers to go beyond chalk and talk method. In addition to the specific educational qualification, language teachers with computer knowledge are preferred by the government and non-governmental educational sectors across the world”(88).

Elizabeth- A Study on the Usefulness of Audio-Visual Aids in EFL Classroom: Implications for Effective Instruction

Nalliveettil George Mathew & Ali Odeh Hammoud Alidmat, A Study on the Usefulness of Audio-Visual Aids in EFL Classroom: Implications for Effective Instruction- International Journal of Higher Education Vol. 2, No. 2; 2013

This particular journal displays the approach of EFL students towards technological aids based on the study conducted at the undergraduate level at Aljouf University,Saudi Arabia.

The language text books with technological aids will be an inspirational and motivating source. According to George Mathew & Ali Odeh, EFL textbooks with technological aids are often viewed to be an inspiration and to provide motivation in classroom instruction (86).

Ranasinghe and Leisher (2009) say that technology should assist the teacher in creating a collaborative learning environment. According to Capper, many teachers do not using the technological devices either because they do not know have technical knowledge or they do not find time to gather suitable resources. ”An effective integration of teaching aids and methodology elevates the learning environment. Activities related to listening and speaking skills require audio-visual aids. It is the responsibility of the teacher to use audio-visual aids to make the teaching-learning process effective.” (George Mathew & Ali Odeh 86).

Ranasinghe and Leisher (2009) points out that technology can never replace the human mind, but it can help expand it. (George Mathew & Ali Odeh 87). Since audio-visual resources are designed and introduced to improve the language proficiency of the students, an understanding of how these resources are effective in classroom learning environment would be beneficial while designing and integrating audio-visual resources with EFL textbooks and also to design the teaching methodology (87).

” The modernization of classroom teaching aids gave scope for teachers to go beyond chalk and talk method. In addition to the specific educational qualification, language teachers with computer knowledge are preferred by the government and non-governmental educational sectors across the world”(88).

The Relationship between Cohabitation and Marital Quality and Stability.

: Author(s): Claire M. Kamp Dush, Catherine L. Cohan and Paul R. Amato Source

: Journal of Marriage and Family , Vol. 65, No. 3 (Aug., 2003), pp. 539-549

Published by: National Council on Family Relations Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3600021

and The article, says cohabiting as a way to assess compatibility before marriage are .people who look forward for cohabitation have selection perspective which assumes growing up with divorced parents ,being non-religious, being poor. This research in to cohabitation found the fact that more than half of recent marriages are preceded by cohabitation and divorce-prone individuals being over represented among cohabits. “the cohabitation literature has treated the selection perspective the experience of cohabitation perspective as competitive explanations for the associations between premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital dysfunction” ( Dush and Amato)

Attitude towards cohabitation likely to shape from the unions they form and let’s say from the age group 18-31. Divorce has influenced after getting married, shows the influence of the formation of subsequent unions. Cunningham and Arland Thornton show that those who do not cohabit prior to marriage are less tolerant of cohabitation in a stable marriage.

 

Marriage trends and their demographic implications;by Ajith Das Gupta

Rekha johnson(1637239)

Source: Demography , Vol. 23, No. 4 (Nov., 1986), pp. 509-523

Published by: Springer on behalf of the Population Association of America Stable

URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2061348

 

The research look into, in India especially women and most marriages occur when reproductive period starts off. “since India as one of the countries with lowest marriage ages of the wife, it is pertinent to speculate how the practice of early female marriages may come to prevail” (sankya;The Indian Journal of Statistics).Till 1950’s divorce as not legally sanctioned. Separation and remarriage were not uncommon though. Polygamy was accepted until 1956 among Hindus ,is still legally valid to Muslims. Different  regions and set classes of town ,there is a lavish variation like in in rural and urban in the average age. Kerala shows the highest ages at marriage and there is a systematic rise in the age with progressively larger size class towns.

The article, says cohabiting as a way to assess compatibility before marriage are .people who look forward for cohabitation have selection perspective which assumes growing up with divorced parents ,being non-religious, being poor. This research in to cohabitation found the fact that more than half of recent marriages are preceded by cohabitation and divorce-prone individuals being over represented among cohabiters. “the cohabitation literature has treated the selection perspective and the experience of cohabitation perspective as competive expalanations for the assciations between premarital cohabitation and subsequent marital dysfunction” ( Dush and Amato)